Health Effects of 100% Fruit and Vegetable Juices: Evidence from Human Subject Intervention Studies

Irene Rossi, Cristiana Mignogna, Daniele Del Rio and Pedro Mena

Abstract: The health effects of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ) represent a controversial topic. FVJ contain notable amounts of free sugars, but also vitamins, minerals, and secondary compounds with proven biological activities like (poly)phenols and carotenoids. The review aimed to shed light on the potential impact of 100% FVJ on human subject health, comprehensively assessing the role each type of juice may have in specific health outcomes for a particular target population, as reported in dietary interventions. The effects of a wide range of FVJ (orange, grapefruit, mandarin, lemon, apple, white, red, and Concord grapes, pomegranate, cranberry, chokeberry, blueberry, other minor berries, sweet and tart cherry, plum, tomato, carrot, beetroot, and watermelon, among others) were evaluated on a series of outcomes (anthropometric parameters, body composition, blood pressure and vascular function, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, cognitive function, exercise performance, gut microbiota composition and bacterial infections), providing a thorough picture of the contribution of each FVJ to a health outcome. Some juices demonstrated their ability to exert potential preventive effects on some outcomes while others on other health outcomes, emphasizing how the differential composition in bioactive compounds defines juice effects. Research gaps and future prospects were discussed. Although 100% FVJ appear to have beneficial effects on some cardiometabolic health outcomes, cognition and exercise performance, or neutral effects on anthropometric parameters and body composition, further efforts are needed to better understand the impact of 100% FVJ on human subject health.

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